Types of Acute Renal Failure (ARF)
The three types of ARF are named for their location within the renal (kidney) system:
Click here to view enlarged image.
Incidence of Acute Renal Failure
ARF affects approximately 1% of patients on admission to the hospital, 2% to 5% during the hospital stay, and 4% to 15% after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.
Signs and Symptoms of ARF
Acute renal failure does not produce a classic set of symptoms. The most common symptom is decreased urine output, which occurs in 70% of patients.
ARF is most easily diagnosed by an increase in blood levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). The blood level of creatinine typically increases by 0.5 milligrams per tenth of a liter (mg/dL) every day.
Treatment for Acute Renal Failure (ARF)
There are several modalities of renal replacement therapy (RRT) for patients with acute renal failure:
- Intermittent hemodialysis
- Continuous hemodialysis (used in critically ill patients)
- Peritoneal dialysis (rarely used)