Increased risk for pneumonococcal infection

  • Age, 65 and older
  • Alcoholism
  • Chronic heart disease (excluding hypertension)
  • Chronic liver disease
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Diabetes

Greatly increased risk for pneumonococcal infection

  • Lung diseases and other conditions that require treatment with long-term systemic corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs
  • Lung cancer and other malignancy
  • Lung or other solid organ transplant
  • Congenital or acquired immunodeficiency
  • Cerebrospinal fluid leak
  • Chronic renal failure or nephritic syndrome
  • Cochlear implant
  • HIV infection
  • Leukemia, lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Sickle cell disease or other conditions associated with functional or anatomic asplenia

Publication Review By: Peter B. Terry, M.D., M.A.

Published: 08 Aug 2013

Last Modified: 08 Aug 2013