Causes and Risk Factors for Toe Deformity

In most cases, toe deformities are caused by a muscle imbalance in the foot. Flatfeet (pes planus), traumatic injuries, and underlying diseases may increase the risk for claw toes and hammertoes.

Diseases and conditions that increase the risk include neuromuscular diseases (e.g., multiple sclerosis, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, cerebral palsy), inflammatory diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis), and diabetes.

Publication Review By: Hai-En Peng, D.P.M.

Published: 31 Dec 1999

Last Modified: 17 Sep 2015