Staging for Cancer of the Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses

Particular tumor stages for the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses are as follows:

TX: Primary tumor cannot be assessed.
T0: No existence of primary tumor.
Tis: Carcinoma in situ (early cancer that has not spread to neighboring tissues).
T1: Tumor limited to antral mucosa with no erosion or destruction of bone.
T2: Tumor with erosion of the infrastructure including the hard palate and/or middle nasal meatus.
T3: Tumor invades any of the following: skin of cheek, posterior wall of maxillary sinus, floor or medial wall of orbit, anterior ethmoid sinus.
T4: Tumor invades orbital contents and/or any of the following: cribriform plate, posterior ethmoid or sphenoid sinuses, nasopharynx, soft palate, temporal fossae, pterygomaxillary fossae or base of skull.

Publication Review By: Stanley J. Swierzewski, III, M.D.

Published: 14 Aug 1999

Last Modified: 18 Sep 2015