Hematuria, or blood in the urine, usually indicates an injury or disorder in the urinary tract. The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, prostate gland (in men), bladder, and urethra. Blood in the urine that can be seen with the naked eye is called gross hematuria and blood that cannot be seen without using a microscope is called microscopic hematuria.

Common causes for hematuria include urinary tract infection (UTI), kidney stones, injury (trauma), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, enlarged prostate) in men, cancer (e.g., bladder cancer, kidney cancer), and certain prescription medications. Additional symptoms, such as painful urination, abdominal pain, and fever, can sometimes accompany hematuria. Treatment for blood in the urine depends on the cause.

Here are some questions to ask your doctor (e.g., urologist) about hematuria. Print this page, check off the questions you would like answered, and take it with you to your doctor appointment. The more knowledge you have about hematuria, the easier it will be to make important decisions about your medical care.

Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Blood in Urine (Hematuria)

  • What are the possible causes for blood in urine?
  • What kinds of examinations and diagnostic tests will be performed to determine the underlying cause for the blood in my urine?
  • What does hematuria testing involve?
  • How should I prepare for these exams and tests?
  • What are the risks and benefits associated with these tests?
  • Will I be able to return to my normal activities after these diagnostic tests?
  • When will my test results be available? Should I call for the results or will someone contact me?
    Date: Telephone number to call:
  • Who will discuss the results with me?
  • How serious is my condition?
  • What is the usual prognosis for people who have this condition?
  • Should I seek a second opinion about my test results? Why, or why not?
  • Will I need to consult a specialist? If so, what information should I be prepared to provide and what questions should I ask?
    Name/Specialist: Telephone number to call:
  • What are my treatment options?
  • What treatment(s) do you recommend?
  • What are the benefits, risks, and side effects of this treatment?
  • How should I prepare for treatment?
  • What can I expect during treatment?
  • Can I continue normal activities during my treatment?
  • How long will the treatment last?
  • How will my condition be monitored during treatment?
  • What should I do if my hematuria worsens or I develop additional symptoms?
  • Will medication(s) be used to treat my condition?
  • What should I do if I experience serious side effects from the medication?
    Telephone number to call:
  • If hematuria is caused by a medication I am taking, should I stop taking it?
  • If so, what are the risks associated with stopping this medication?
  • Might I need surgery to treat the underlying cause for my hematuria?
  • What does this surgery involve?
  • Who will perform the procedure?
  • What are the benefits, risks, and possible complications of this surgery?
  • How should I prepare for the surgery?
  • How long will it take me to recover from the procedure? What kind of care will I need after surgery?
  • What should I do if I experience complications from the procedure?
    Telephone number to call:
  • How often should I have follow-up examinations after the surgery?

Publication Review By: Stanley J. Swierzewski, III, M.D.

Published: 25 May 2009

Last Modified: 18 Sep 2015