Foods that Contain Omega-3 Fats
If you don't eat fish but want to get more of their healthy omega-3 fats, fortified foods may sound like a good idea. Adding omega-3s to foods—such as breads, spreads, cereals, frozen waffles, and even pasta and cheese—is certainly a good marketing ploy. But do these fortified foods reel in the same health benefits as natural sources of omega-3s?
Why omega-3 fats? These polyunsaturated fats have been linked to lower risk of cardiovascular disease . They also may help
- Relieve rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases
- Reduce the risk of macular degeneration
- Preserve cognitive function in older people
- Treat depression and certain other mental disorders
But not all omega-3s are the same. There are two different sources of omega-3s—marine and plant. Omega-3s from fish—eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)—have known heart benefits. They help reduce blood clots, arrhythmias, inflammation, high blood pressure and triglycerides (fats in the blood). That's why the American Heart Association and other health authorities recommend eating at least two servings of fatty fish a week (and larger amounts for people who have heart disease). Salmon, herring, mackerel, and sardines are particularly good sources of EPA and DHA.
Another omega-3 fat, called alpha linolenic acid (ALA), comes from plant foods, notably flaxseeds, walnuts, and canola oil. Our bodies convert ALA to EPA and DHA, but very inefficiently—less than 1 percent by some estimates. Most researchers question whether it's possible to consume enough ALA to end up with as much EPA and DHA as you'd get by eating fatty fish. That is, ALA cannot replace the omega-3s from fish. On the positive side, some studies suggest that this fat may reduce the risk of heart disease and have other health benefits of its own.
Daily Amounts of Omega 3 Foods
There's no official recommendation for EPA or DHA, but some food companies have set 160 milligrams as a "Daily Value" for both omega-3s combined (or 130 milligrams for each alone). Government and health organizations around the world, including the American Dietetic Association, advise higher levels of EPA and DHA—usually about 500 milligrams a day (3,500 milligrams a week) to reduce the risk of heart disease. Two small (4-ounce) servings of fatty fish a week supply about that much. The American Heart Association advises 1,000 milligrams a day for people who already have heart disease.
The "Adequate Intake" for ALA, set by the Institute of Medicine, is 1,100 milligrams a day for women, and 1,600 milligrams a day for men—about what most Americans consume.
The Fine Print about Omega 3 Foods
Last year hundreds of new food products in the U.S. claimed to be high in omega-3s. But you have to read the label to find out the actual amount—anywhere from 30 to 1,000 milligrams. And how meaningful these amounts are depends on the source. Typically, it is ALA.
In the last few years, however, an increasing number of manufacturers have been using EPA and DHA from fish oil, due to improvements in processing that can transform smelly fish oil that goes bad quickly into an odorless powder with longer shelf life: others add algae oil, a vegetarian source of DHA.
Some products, such as margarines, contain both fish oil and flaxseed—and thus have all three types of omega-3s (ALA, EPA, DHA). The same goes for "designer" eggs, which come from hens that are fed flaxseed, fish oil, and/or algae. Some cows are also fed special diets with DHA to increase the omega-3s in their milk.
The Reel Deal about Omega 3 Foods
Fortified foods are a way to boost your intake of omega-3s. But
- Most fortified foods provide only a fraction of what's recommended for potential benefits. A cup of fortified orange juice, for example, has 50 milligrams of EPA and DHA—virtually nothing compared to salmon. Fortified products often cost more, too.
- If the package doesn't declare the source of omega-3s, chances are it's ALA from flaxseed, hempseed, or even just canola or soybean oil. These foods provide about 200 to 1,000 milligrams of ALA per serving. But we already get relatively large amounts of ALA in our diets without fortified sources.
- Omega-3-fortified products are not necessarily healthful in all ways. Horizon Organic DHA Omega-3 Chocolate Milk, for example, has about four teaspoons of added sugar. Fortified granola bars may contain trans fats and a lot of sugar.
- Vegetarians take note: ALA is always from a plant source, but DHA may come from either fish or algae. Cabot uses algae DHA to enhance its cheese, but Jif Omega-3 Peanut Butter contains EPA and DHA from sardine/anchovy oil and tilapia gelatin.
- If you don't eat fish, a basic fish oil supplement is an option. Supplements that supply ALA, such as flaxseed oil capsules, won't do the trick.
Foods that Contain EPA/DHA
Herring, 4 ounces— 2,200-2,500 mg
Salmon, 4 ounces—1,200-2,400 mg
Sardines, canned, 4 ounces—1,200-1,600 mg
Trout, 4 ounces—1,000-1,400 mg
Tuna, canned, 4 ounces 300-1,000 mg
Cabot Cheddar Cheese with DHA, 1 oz—32 mg
Francesco Rinaldi ToBe Pasta Sauce, ½ cup— 64 mg
Horizon DHA Omega-3 Milk, 1 cup— 32 mg
Jif Omega-3 Peanut Butter, 2 tablespoons—32 mg
Kellogg's Live Bright Brain Health Bar, 1 bar—100 mg
Silk DHA Omega-3 Soy Milk, 1 cup—32 mg
Smart Balance Omega-3 Milk, 1 cup—32 mg
Tropicana Healthy Heart Orange Juice, 1 cup—50 mg
Wegmans Omega-3 Whole-Wheat Bread, 1 slice—40 mg
Where to find ALA
Beans, kidney, 1 cup cooked—300 mg
Canola oil, 1 tablespoon—1,280 mg
Flaxseeds, ground, 1 tablespoon—1,600 mg
Soybeans, green, cooked, 1 cup—640 mg
Soybean oil, 1 tablespoon—925 mg
Walnuts, 1 ounce—2,600 mg
Barilla Plus Pasta, 1/2 cup uncooked—180 mg
Health Valley Golden Flax Cereal, 1 cup—1,000 mg
I Can't Believe It's Not Butter, 1 tablespoon—460 mg
Kashi Go Lean, Honey Almond Flax Cereal, 1 cup—500 mg
Nature's Path Flax Plus With Figs Frozen Waffles, 2—1,500 mg
Quaker Fiber & Omega-3 Granola Bar, 1—320 mg
Smart Balance Omega Plus Mayonnaise, 1 tablespoon—500 mg
Total Plus Omega-3 Cereal, 1 cup—160 mg
Uncle Sam Oatmeal with Flaxseed, 1 packet—400 mg
Source: Originally published in The University of California, Berkeley Wellness Letter (April 2011)